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Published: 15/02/2019

Should Gay Conversion Therapy Be Banned?

Mathew Shurka left gay conversion therapy after feeling suicidal during five years of treatment in New York.

The hardest part was being forcibly separated from his mother and two sisters under his therapist’s direction soon after his father took him to the practice at age 16.

“I was close to my mother and they said I had to stay away from females, I had to understand what my role is as a male - basically like gender training,” Shurka said. “They separated us for three years, meaning I wasn’t allowed to talk to them for three years.”


Shurka stopped having conversion therapy in 2009. Ten years later, he is spearheading the Born Perfect campaign with the National Center for Lesbian Rights  to outlaw conversion therapy in the United States and was on hand to see New York legislators vote in January to ban the practice.


What Is Conversion Therapy?

Conversion therapy describes any form of treatment that aims to repress or stop same-sex coupling and result in lesbian, gay, homosexual and transgender (LGBT) people living heterosexual lives.


Most practitioners are predominantly from a religious background and dislike this description of the practice, which is also known as “reparative therapy”, “sexual reorientation therapy” and “change therapy”, but we use the term in this article as it is the most widely used.


The practice has been widely discredited by leading medical and mental health organizations including the American Psychiatric Association (A.P.A.), the United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) and the Australian Medical Association.


LGBT people who have had conversion therapy report programs are designed to try and “cure” them, but practitioners such as International Federation for Therapeutic and Counselling Choice (IFTCC) chairman Dr Mike Davidson deny they have such goals.

Dr Mike Davidson Chief Exec, Core Issues Trust

Dr Mike Davidson, Chairman, International Federation for Therapeutic and Counselling Choice (IFTCC) and guest Swayr contributor.



Dr Mike Davidson, is a Christian campaigner with a homosexual past, and believes others can reject what he calls a sin.

His organisations website states: Home for the once-gay, those coming-out and the de-transitioners...

"We’re not converting people,” said Davidson, who was struck off by several U.K. counseling, psychotherapy and psychodrama associations for focusing on homosexual issues in his counseling work as director of Northern Ireland-based Christian charity Core Issues Trust“. We are simply walking with them and providing psychotherapeutic and counseling support to achieve the goals that they come to with us.”


A 2009 A.P.A. report found little evidence to support the effectiveness of conversion therapy.

“[S]uch efforts have serious potential to harm young people because they present the view that the sexual orientation of lesbian, gay and bisexual youth is a mental illness or disorder,” the A.P.A. said. “And they often frame the inability to change one's sexual orientation as a personal and moral failure.”

Should gay Conversion Be Banned or Embraced ?

Did You Know 698,000 LGBT Americans Have Had Conversion Therapy?

A 2018 University of Los Angeles, California study estimates 698,000 LGBT people aged 18 to 59 have received conversion therapy.


The UCLA School of Law’s Williams Institute also found:

  • 350,000 of those who had the treatment in the U.S. were adolescents at the time.
  • An estimated 20,000 youth aged 13 to 17 will receive conversion therapy before they reach age 18 in the 41 states that have not banned the practice.
  • 57,000 youth will receive the treatment from a religious or spiritual advisor.
  • 6,000 13- to 17-year-olds would have received conversion therapy before they reached adulthood if their state had not banned the practice.


Christy Mallory, State and Local Policy director at the Williams Institute, said those numbers might change because researchers were updating the study at the end of legislative sessions in early 2019, as more states move to ban the practice.


Christy Mallory, State and Local Policy director at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law-1

Christy Mallory, State and Local Policy director at the Williams Institute and Swayr guest contributor.



“A lot of people thought this was a thing of the past, that conversion therapy was not happening any more,” she said. “But we found that in our research that looked at three different LGBT age cohorts that … young people were about as likely to have undergone conversion therapy as older people. It really does show that it’s still continuing.”


Study co-author Dr. Kerith Conron, the Blachford-Cooper, distinguished scholar and research director at the institute, believes their estimates are conservative because the study is based on information on the 4.5 percent of the U.S. population who identify as LGBT.

Dr. Kerith Conron, the Blachford-Cooper, distinguished scholar and research director at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law-1

Dr. Kerith Conron, Research director at the Williams institute and Swayr guest contributor

“I suspect that some people who currently identify as heterosexual may have also experienced conversion therapy and if they did, because they’re such a large group of the population - the majority - it would mean even more people would have been exposed to conversion therapy,” she said.


“The majority of conversion therapy that people experienced seems to have been practised by religiously affiliated people, who are not necessarily licensed by the state and, therefore, their actions are not controllable through legislation.”



Breaking Down The Different Types Of Conversion Therapy

The Williams Institute’s Conron said it was unclear what the most common types of conversion therapy were in the United States, but researchers hoped address this with further research in the coming months.


“Most conversion therapy occurs in the context of religion,” she said. “My speculation is that a lot of it probably probably occurs in group settings like prayer groups or camps.”


Common methods used at conversion camps include prayer, masturbatory reconditioning, isolating individuals and fostering nonsexual male bonding, psychologist and activist Dr. Douglas Haldeman told Teen Vogue.


Like Born Perfect’s Shurka, journalist Gabriel Arana said his therapist Dr. Joseph Nicolosi, who co-founded the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH), which represents practitioners of conversion therapy in the U.S., told him he had gay feelings because he was closest to his mother and his best friends were female.


“At Nicolosi’s urging, I told my best friend that I had to distance myself from her,” Arana wrote. “Instead, Nicolosi encouraged me to form “genuine nonsexual bonds” with other men. He paired me with another one of his patients …”


Core Issues Trust practitioner Davidson said he worked with clients through psychotherapy and counseling to “explore the fluidity of sexuality.”


Some conversion therapists seem to go beyond talk therapy, according to investigative reports by outlets including The Liverpool Echo in northwest England, whose reporter went undercover at a Pentecostal church. He reported taking part in a “relentless prayer session involving three days without food or water.”


Why Do So Many Sexual Reorientation Therapy Patients Report Feeling Suicidal?

Clinical studies show about two-thirds of people who’ve had the treatment experience higher levels of feeling suicidal, depressed and anxious.

Man standing on bridge about to commit suicideImage credit: Nigel Howard -Photo Journalist


Born Perfect campaigner Shurka said his suicidal thoughts lessoned toward the end of his five years of conversion therapy sessions.


“I understood as a young adult there was a possibility that they were wrong, they were no longer the credible therapists I thought they were,” he said. “They all said … you can only experience true love if you have an experience with the opposite sex and have a child. There’s no other love than that. I thought that was ridiculous because how do you describe a love between two friends and love between a child and a parent? So why not two people of the same sex?”


Christian therapist Davidson pointed to research showing higher rates of suicide ideation rather than “suicide completion” in the LGBT community, which he said was not because of homophobia - a term he rejects for being “used to achieve a specific revolutionary end”.


“Is it because of societal homophobia or is it because actually many of these people are unhappy and they have been denied the right to get out of it?” he said. “It’s been an enduring problem, but now governments want to close down the research and the opportunities so that you cannot even question it; you cannot even explore other alternatives.”


Shurka said such comments placed the blame of conversion therapy on the patients, instead of the practitioners.


The only reason anyone is gay and suicidal is because of external factors,” he said. “They’re not being accepted by their community, their church, their parents - that’s the issue.”



Brief History Of Practices Designed to Stop Homosexuality

The origins of conversion therapy can be traced to the late 19th century, when a German psychiatrist claimed he’d changed the sexual orientation of a patient with a treatment of hypnosis sessions and brothel visits.


It came to the fore in the early 20th century, when methods to “cure” homosexuality escalated as the fields of modern psychology and psychiatry were in their infancy, according to psychologist Haldeman. Techniques to treat patients could involve lobotomies or electroconvulsive therapy. Some physicians implanted testicles from the corpses of heterosexual men onto gay men in the hope of “curing them”.


“The work of Sigmund Freud was used to validate a cultural view that homosexuality was abnormal,” Haldeman told Teen Vogue. “Therefore, it was thought of as a form of mental illness, or pathologized.”


“Father of computer science” Alan Turing, who helped bring about the end of the Second World War by two to four years through his codebreaking work, opted to be chemically castrated rather than imprisoned for “public indecency” after admitting to a homosexual relationship in 1952 - the same year the A.P.A. officially listed homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1952 (The British Government apologized for its treatment of Turing and others as it enacted Turing’s Law and pardoned thousands of other men convicted for homosexual offenses in 2017.).


It took until 1973 for the A.P.A. to remove homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).


By the 1960s, practitioners had turned to the treatment of aversion therapy, during which patients would be shocked or given nausea-inducing drugs while they were shown same-sex erotica, according to the British Medical Journal. They were then shown images of women in Playboy magazine during which they received no shocks.


Other methods included psychoanalysis or talk therapy, estrogen treatments to reduce libido in men, and even electroconvulsive therapy, in which an electric shock is used to induce a seizure, with side effects such as memory loss,” Live Science reports.


Unregulated Practices

Conversion therapists such as Davidson distance themselves from extreme treatments they say were carried out by medical practitioners, rather than religiously affiliated groups, who work in talk therapy.


However, UCLA researcher Conron said a concern with modern conversion therapy practices was that they went unchecked.


We don’t know how often people seek out conversion therapy or consent to it,” she said.


Davidson blames a lack of checks and balances for restricting his practices and preventing him from getting certification because there is “no ideological diversity” in research.


Did You Know 8 Percent of Americans Think Gay Conversion Therapy Works?

After the Texas Republican Party endorsed reparative therapy in 2014, YouGov released a poll showing 63 percent of Americans believed it could not change a person's sexual orientation. Other findings included:

  • Only 8 percent said conversion therapy worked.
  • 28 percent of those surveyed were unsure if change therapy worked.
  • 37 percent of Americans believe being gay or lesbian is “just the way some people choose to live.”


‘Bipartisan Support’ For Conversion Therapy Ban


Proponents argue banning conversion therapy would infringe on the rights of parents and religious freedom and that moves to stop it are the result of a clash of ideology with liberals.


But momentum to outlaw the practice has been building in Republican and Democratic states.


“There is partisan support on both sides. Out of the 15 states, six governors who signed this bill into law are Republicans,” gay rights advocate Shurka said. “Being gay is a Republican issue as much as it’s a Democrat issue; Republicans have gay children also; Republicans are gay.”


Vice President Mike Pence Conversion Therapy Stance

LGBT rights groups expressed concern when then-U.S. Presidential candidate Donald Trump selected Mike Pence as his running mate for the 2016 election.

God hates fagsExtreme groups like the Westboro Baptist Church 


Some accused the vice president of supporting conversion therapy, including the 2016 U.S. men’s figure skating champion Adam Rippon, the first openly gay American winter Olympian. Pence did advocate during his first successful run for Congress in 2001 for federal funding to be directed “toward those institutions which provide assistance to those seeking to change their sexual behavior.”


He also became the first VP to “speak at the anti-gay group” Values Voter Summit in September, alongside defenders of conversion therapy, including the self-described “Activist Mommy” blogger Elizabeth Johnston. However, he has never stated that he supported gay conversion therapy, according to the fact-check site Snopes.


Does Trump Support Conversion Therapy?

Rights groups say protections for LGBT people have been rolled back under the President Trump’s administration and the 2016 GOP platform appeared to endorse conversion therapy. “We support the right of parents to determine the proper treatment or therapy, for their minor children,” an amendment said.


Swayr could not find any record of Trump’s personal views of the practice, but he did pledge support for the LGBT community during his campaign for the 2016 presidential election.


Advocate’s Goal: Shut Down Reparative Therapy, One State At A Time

Shurka was in Colorado in February to see lawmakers vote to send a bill to the full house to ban conversion therapy, as a Minnesota house panel also approved a bill to ban the practice.


Shurka attends state legislature hearings across the country to share his experience as Born Perfect strives to shut down conversion therapy on a state by state basis.


“I do think it’s inevitable that conversion therapy will end,” Shurka said. “But we are also in the most dangerous position this year because conversion therapists and those organizations are spending more money on opposing us. They are investing and building

their conversion therapy programs.”


Global Push To Outlaw Conversion Therapy


Conversion therapy is still legal in most countries.

Handcuffed priest

In Canada, Ontario has made the practice illegal, saying on its website “conversion therapy can have no place in the province’s public health-care system.”

Thousands of Canadians signed petitions calling for the rest of the country to follow suit with a nationwide ban on reparative therapy.


In Australia, the country’s Senate passed a motion in September that seeks to ban conversion therapy across the country. However, Aussie Prime Minister Scott Morrison said when asked if he supported the ban it was “not an issue for me.”


Victoria’s Premier Daniel Andrews announced in February it would become the first state in Australia to outlaw reparative therapy, calling the practice “bigoted quackery”.


Across “the ditch” in New Zealand, a gay conversion therapy bill that “entered a members’ ballot lottery” was met with a muted response by Kiwi leaders, with the country’s Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern saying a range of views needed to be heard and Deputy PM Winston Peters saying he had never thought about the issue. Newshub reports the Bill submitted by a Kiwi Member of Parliament “may never see the light of day”.


The European Union voted to condemn conversion therapy and called on member states to ban it in 2018. Two years before that vote, the tiny Mediterranean island nation of Malta in 2016 became the first European country to outlaw the practice.


‘Clash Of Worldviews’


In the United Kingdom, the British Government outlined plans in 2018 to make the practice illegal nationwide. Britain’s Equalities Minister Penny Mordaunt said in July consulting on the best way to implement a ban on the practice she described as “abhorrent”.


“"This is very extreme so-called therapy that is there to try and 'cure' someone from being gay - of course you can't cure someone from being gay,” she told the BBC. “In its most extreme form it can involve corrective rape.”


A British Government report lists other treatments including “pseudo-psychological treatments” and “surgical interventions”.


Christian therapist Davidson is fighting against plans to outlaw the practice and said instances of corrective rape were found to have occurred in South Africa, not the U.K. Swayr research found two cases of rape related to homophobia that resulted in convictions in England in the past three years. Neither related directly to conversion therapy.


He sees the fight as a “clash of worldviews” and a lack of ideological diversity.


“The issue is the macro-worldview of differences between the theists and the atheists, the secularists and those who would go in a more sacred direction,” Davidson said.

Swayr asked by Swayr why the Church of England had called for a ban on conversion therapy if the issue was caused by a disagreement between theists and atheists.

Mike Davidson replied it was because it was the state church. "It regurgitates what the sexual mores and the sexual politics that are being dictated by the Westminster elite,” he said.


Ex-Gay Movement

On the other side of the debate, momentum is building among groups who identify as “ex-gay”, which the Canadian Encyclopedia describes as a predominantly conservative Christian global movement that is most prominent in the U.S., Canada, Britain and Australia. It notes there is a smaller Jewish arm.


The movement is “commonly referred to in popular culture by the phrase ‘pray the gay away,’” the encyclopedia says. “It is a loosely organized network of not-for-profit religious ministries and for-profit psychotherapy practices devoted to the management and attempted elimination of what it considers sinful and abnormal same-sex desires and behaviors.”


Is Everyone Born Heterosexual?

Gay conversion therapy poster

Christian practitioner Davidson said he had sought the help of counsellors and psychotherapists after struggling with homosexual feelings.


“Behaviors change,” he said of the therapy. “The feelings change and I guess you have to be careful with change because change is a process. It’s never going to be necessarily 100 percent. In my case, what I found was I could live the way I wanted; I could be with my family, I could be with my wife and with my children.”


Davidson said he believed homosexuality was wrong because it was not going to help society or propagate humanity in a healthy way, though he wanted to “celebrate the great things that many gay people do” and not dictate how people lived their lives.


“I think for Christian people and for conservative and faith-based people almost across the board, it’s wrong and they know it by their conscience,” he added.


Shurka said it was common for conversion therapists to have sought help for having gay feelings. Reparative therapy proponents believe every person on the planet is innately heterosexual. “So if you’re not heterosexual, something caused it.” (This belief has been widely rejected by the medical and psychiatric communities.)


The Born Perfect campaigner was from a happy Jewish-American home (his father took him to conversion therapy because he believed his son would have more opportunities as a heterosexual man), so it was decided he had too many female role models. His mother began to question this method: “How can there be any kind of therapy where the solution is separating a mother from a child?” She eventually helped him move to California and start a new life.


Accidental Activist

“I never intended to be a gay rights activist whatsoever,” Shurka said. “I was coming out of the closet, I was recovering from conversion therapy and I was doing a personal development course, a program here in New York, and I did a video for a charity called the It Gets Better Project.”


His 2012 anti-bullying video went viral and attracted the attention of a TV and online media, and The Huffington Post showcased his story on its front page, attracting hundreds of supportive comments. He teamed up with the NCLR and has been campaigning since to ban conversion therapy.


Viral Videos

Evangelical Christian groups have made videos of their own that have gone viral online, such as Anchored North’s 2018 production “Love is Love,” which borrows from a term the LGBT community has embraced as a symbol of empowerment.


Core Issues Trust released a movie in February calledOnce Gay: Matthew And Friends,  featuring singer Matthew Grech. He hit headlines in Europe when he himself as ex-gay during a pre-audition interview on X Factor Malta that was cut from the talent show’s broadcast.


The film is a response to Hollywood movies such as the 2018 Sundance Film Festival winner “The Miseducation of Cameron Post” and the critically acclaimed Russell Crowe drama Boy Erased”, for which Born Perfect’s Shurka acted as a consultant.


UCLA’s Conron said films on conversion therapy harms were an important way to reduce occurrences of the practice because they reached parents and educated them on their impacts.


Targeting Adolescents And Children

Conversion therapists believe the earlier you can treat someone with LGBT feelings, the better, in contrast to the American Academy of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry (A.A.C.A.P.) which, like other medical and psychiatric organizations, found no evidence to support such claims.


“[T]here is evidence that such interventions are harmful,” the A.A.C.A.P. says on its website.As a result, ‘conversion therapies’ should not be part of any behavioral health treatment of children and adolescents.”


Proponents of the practice are using increasingly sophisticated methods to target young people. In 2018, Facebook came under fire for running ads promoting conversion therapy, and online behemoth Amazon was attacked in February for selling books promoting the treatment of same-sex issues, including one by the late U.S. psychologist Joseph Nicholosifor, co-founder of sexual reorientation therapy group NARTH, titled “A Parent’s Guide To Preventing Homosexuality.”


Tech giant Google was criticized by campaigners in January for stocking an app from the Texas Christian group Living Hope Ministries in its Play Store that encourages LGBT people to seek out reparative therapy. It had been downloaded more than 1000 times since its launch in 2014. A petition for its removal garnered about 135,000 signatures by Valentine’s Day.


‘Victor Becomes The Aggressor’


Davidson said young people were being denied the right to explore their sexuality with moves to outlaw practices like his as he acknowledged the rights protections the LGBT community had won.


“In the end, the victor becomes the aggressor and the gay folk, they were once victims,” Davidson said. “But now they are the aggressors. It’s like cult behavior, ‘You dare leave homosexuality, we’ll get you.’


“They call me names: ‘You’re so gay.’ That’s what they’ll say to me. … They won’t go for an argument, they’ll go for the spirit; they’ll go to discourage people; they’ll go to harshness. And I think that that’s the problem.”


Davidson admitted this could happen on both sides of the debate, but added there should be more mutual respect.


Veteran Conversion Therapist Comes Out As Gay

David Mathewson, a leading Mormon conversion therapist comes out as gay

His comments come after David Mathewson, a leading Mormon conversion therapist from Utah came out as gay in a January Facebook post that announced he was divorcing his wife of 34 years.


He wrote the lengthy piece following LGBT charity Truth Wins Out obtaining a private post by Rick Wyler, who is also a sexual orientation therapist, saying Matheson was no longer part of the movement.


“A year ago I realized I had to make substantial changes in my life,” he wrote. “I realized I couldn’t stay in my marriage any longer. And I realized that it was time for me to affirm myself as gay.”


Matheson later told NBC he apologized unequivocally to those he had harmed, but he would not fully renounce conversion therapy.


“I know there are people who won’t be satisfied by anything less than a complete and unequivocal renunciation of everything,” Matheson said. “That’s hard, because I want people to feel the genuineness of my change of heart, but people need to understand that there is more than one reality in the world.”


Christian therapist Davidson knew Matheson and said there were inconsistencies in his trajectory.


“For different reasons, people step out and go in a different direction,” Davidson said. “So I think it’s absurd to say, this is just proof, to say there’s nothing in all of this. You’ll find exactly the same thing on the other side.”


He pointed to a New York Times obituary of Manhattan therapist Bob Bergen that mentions a suicide note pointing to his book “Happiness For Gay Men Midlife And Beyond” that the conversion therapy advocate interpreted to mean the late writer had renounced being gay, rather than being about his age.


Stressful For Parents

UCLA academic Conron said there was variability in sexuality in the population and it might be easier for some people to focus their attractions on the opposite sex than others.


I feel really bad for the people who must be in such turmoil in terms of struggling to be who they aren’t, but I don’t doubt that there are people who sought out conversion therapy or who may even believe that it’s worked for them,” the Williams Institute researcher said.


“I’ve done of my own research on the parents of LGBT youth and how stressful they find it that they’re LGBTQ because they worry so much about so much - their safety and wellbeing - and I suspect that families probably seek out conversion therapy as a way to protect their kids and help them have safe, happy lives.


“I feel grateful to the family groups who are able to put stories to the experience to let parents know that this practice is harmful and it elevates their kid’s risk of suicide because I think if parents knew, they wouldn’t choose that path, they would find another way.”



  • Mathew Shurka, Born perfect co-founder
  • Dr Mike Davidson, conversion therapist,  International Federation for Therapeutic and Counselling Choice (IFTCC) chairman and Core Issues Trust director
  • Christy Mallory, State and Local Policy director at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law
  • Dr. Kerith Conron, the Blachford-Cooper, distinguished scholar and research director at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law




[1] Conversion Therapy And LGBT Youth Study, January 2018 (The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law)

[2]How Gay Conversion Therapy Came to Be, and How It Persists Today,’ Teen Vogue.

[3] ‘My So-Called Gay Life,’ The American Prospect.

[4] ‘Eco Goes Undercover - Gay Cure’, Liverpool Echo.

[5] ‘Changing Sexual Orientation: A Consumer’s Report (Ariel Shidlo and Michael Schroeder, 2002)

[6] Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations (I.H. Meyer, 2003.).

[7] Suicidal Ideation, Psych Central.

[8] Gay Conversion Therapy's Disturbing 19th-Century Origins,

[9] When gays were 'cured', BBC.

[10] Why Alan Turing is the father of computer science, TechRadar.

[11] GCHQ apologises for 'horrifying' treatment of Alan Turing, The Independent.

[12] ‘When Homosexuality Stopped Being a Mental Disorder,’ Psychology Today.

[13] ‘U.K. issues posthumous pardons for thousands of gay men,’ The Guardian.

[14] ‘The A.P.A. Ruling On Homosexuality,’ The New York Times.

[15] ‘Texas GOP endorses 'reparative therapy' for gays,’ Politico.

[16] ‘Only 8% of Americans think gay conversion therapy works,’ YouGov.


[17] ‘Parental Rights’ Is Back As A “Conversion Therapy” Talking Point,’ Los Angeles Blade.

[18] ‘California Dems Prepare For Crackdown On Churches,’ Fox News.

[19]Elections, Films Help Effort To Ban Gay Conversion Therapy,’ The Associated Press.

[20] ‘Mike Pence and ‘Conversion Therapy’: A History,’ The New York Times.

[21] ‘Gay Olympian Adam Rippon Attacks Choice Of Mike Pence To Lead U.S. Olympic Delegation,’ The Independent.

[22] ‘The Pence Agenda for the 107th Congress,’ Mike Pence website.

[23] ‘Pence is first VP to speak at anti-gay group's Values Voter Summit,’ NBC News.

[24] ‘Did Mike Pence Support ‘Gay Conversion’ Therapy?’ Snopes.

[25] ‘The Ways The Trump Administration Has Rolled Back Protections For Transgender People,’ CNN.

[26] ‘Republican Platform: Conversion Therapy, Porn, Gay Marriage,’ Time Magazine.


[27] ‘Colorado House Committee Advances Bill To Ban Conversion Therapy For Minors,’ the AP.

[28] ‘Meanwhile, at the state Capitol,’ Minnesota Public Radio.

[29] ‘Position on Conversion Therapy,’ Manitoba Government website.

[30] ‘Thousands Of Canadians Have Signed Petitions To Ban Conversion Therapy,’ BBC.

[31] ‘Scott Morrison Says Gay Conversion Therapy “Not An Issue For Me,”’ SBS.

[32] ‘Victoria To Ban Gay Conversion Therapy,’ The Age.

[33] ‘Prohibition of Conversion Therapy Bill (2018),’ New Zealand Parliament Members’ Bills.

[34] ‘Gay Conversion Therapy Bill Enters Members’ Ballot Lottery,’ Newshub.


[35] ‘European Parliament Takes A Stance Against LGBTI Conversion Therapies For The First Time,’ EU press release.

[36] ‘Malta Becomes First European Country To Ban 'Gay Cure' Therapy,’ The Guardian.

[37] ‘UK Government To Ban 'Gay Conversion Therapy,' CNN.

[38] 'Gay Conversion Therapy' To Be Banned As Part Of LGBT Equality Plan,’ BBC.

[39] ‘Father Raped Gay Daughter To Prove ‘Sex Better With Men,’ The Independent.

[40] ‘Man Who Targeted Lesbians 'Raped One As She Was Vomiting,' Metro.

[41] Ex-Gay Movement, Canadian Encyclopedia.


[43] ‘Mathew Shurka, Ex-Gay Reparative Therapy Patient, Gives Emotional Video Testimony,’ HuffPost.


[44] ‘Anchored North: 'Cult-like' Evangelical Christian Group Condemned,’ The Independent.

[45] Protest Planned At Northern Ireland Church “Gay Cure” Film,’ Belfast Telegraph.

[46] ‘Matthew Grech Demands Government And MGRM Apology After Audition Clip Was Removed,’ Malta Independent.

[47] ‘X Factor Malta Contestant's Audition Pulled From Facebook And Youtube After “Gay Conversion” Backlash,’ Lovin Malta.

[48] ‘“The Miseducation Of Cameron Post” Review,’ Variety.

[49] Lucas Hedges, Russell Crowe Talk Political Significance of Boy Erased (THR)

[50] With ‘Boy Erased’ and ‘Cameron Post,’ Hollywood Exposes Conversion Therapy (Variety)

[51] ‘Conversion Therapy,’ A.A.C.A.P. (2018.).

[52]Facebook ‘Shamed’ LGBT Users With ‘Gay Cure’ Ads,’ Fox News.

[53] ‘Amazon Criticized For Selling ‘Gay Cure’ Books, The Independent.

[54] ‘Google Under Fire For “Pray Away The Gay” App In The Play Store,’ The Telegraph.

[55] ‘TWO Reveals Leading Mormon Conversion Therapist Is Now Seeking to Date Men; Out But Not Sorry For Causing Harm,’ Truth Wins Out.

[56] ‘Once-Prominent “Conversion Therapist” Will Now “Pursue Life As A Gay Man,’ NBC.

[57] ‘Not Waiting to Say Goodbye,’ The New York Times.


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